General Knowledge article on Mahatma Gandhi and Biography of Mahatma Gandhi.
Mahatma Gandhi’s fathers name was Mr. Karamchand Gandhi and Mother was Putlibai.
Mahatma Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869 in Porbandar a distric of gujrat state in India.
He got married to Kasturbai Makanji when he was 13 years old and was blessed with two children.
He studied law in London between 1888 and 1891 and went to South Africa in 1893 where he opened his own law office.
In 1906 Mahatma Gandhi began the Satyagraha movement in South Africa in protest to the law that all Indians should be finger printed and should also carry an identification card. He was joined by thousands of Indians in this civil disobedience movement.
Gandhi returned to India in 1915. He spent a year touring India on the advice of his political guru, Gopal Krishna Gokhale with the idea of knowing the ‘real India’.
On completing the tour, Gandhi chose to settle down on the banks of river Sabarmati on the outskirts of the city of Ahmedabad where he opened Satyagraha Ashram.
In India, Gandhi started the first Satyagraha in Champaran at the request of poor farmers as they were compelled by British indigo planters to grow indigo on 15% of their land and were then forced to part with the entire crop in lieu of rent.
The Satyagraha forced the British Government to setup an enquiry to evaluate the conditions of the farmers. A committee was setup of which Gandhi too was a part and the committee ruled in favor of the farmers. The success of the first Satyagraha movement in India played an immense role in increasing Gandhi’s popularity in India.
In 1921 Gandhiji called for a non-cooperation movement against the British rule, many Indians willingly renounced their honors and titles, lawyers gave up their practice and students left schools and colleges, womens also entered the field of freedom struggle for the first time. This movement seriously rocked the foundation of the British Empire in India.
After mob violence in Chauri Chaura which broke out in Feb 1922 Gandhiji ended non-cooperation movement abruptly and undertook a fast for five days to atone for the crime committed by the people during the mob hysteria.
Gandhi Ji devoted his time to the propagation of the basic needs such as unity among the Hindu-Muslims, equality of women, removal of the concept of untouchables and increasing the popularity of hand-spinning.
On March 12, 1930 Gandhiji started the historic Dandi March to break the law which stated that salt could not be made by Indians. He reached the beach at Dandi and broke the salt law on Aril 6, 1930.
The historic Dandi March gave strength to the entire nation to start a nation wide defiance of the law and helped start the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’. Within a couple of weeks, thousands were arrested and put in jail further rocking the empire. The Viceroy Lord Irwin was forced to hold talks with Gandhi and on March 5, 1931 the Gandhi Irwin pact was signed. After signing this pact, Gandhi left for England to attend the First Round Table Conference.
During World War II the British Government in India wanted India’s help. The Congress agreed to help but wanted a promise of Independence in return, the British Government refused.
In 1942, Gandhi launched the ‘Quit India’ movement. This movement led to wide spread disorders and many violent demonstrations across India. Gandhi and other top leaders of the Congress were arrested. During that period his wife passed away and Gandhiji too suffered from a severe attack of Malaria. Considering his deteriorating health, in May 1944 the British Government released him from jail.
At the end of World War II, Britain emerged victorious and when general elections were held in 1945, the Labor Party came into power and Atlee became the Prime Minister. He promised that a self Government would soon be made available in India. A committee arrived from England and discussions were held with the leaders of India about the future of the free India but these meetings failed because of the differences in the opinion between the Congress and Muslims leaders.
In 1945 eventually India attain Independence but due to Jinnah’s obstinacy, the country was partitioned into India and Pakistan. The partition caused a large amount of bloodshed between the Hindus and the Muslims. During the entire saga, Gandhi worked relentlessly to promote the unity between the Hindus and the Muslims and kept a fast to promote indian government for providing aid to newly bulit muslim nation pakistan. This angered the Hindus to the extent of killing Gandhi.
On January 30, 1948 during a prarthna sabha he was shot by Nathu Ram Godse . The last words on his lips were ‘Hey Ram’ (Oh God).