Chemical reactions can be classified based on their reaction kinetics.
Chemistry Kinetics and Equilibrium
Chemical reactions can be classified based on their reaction kinetics. The general reaction form is:
aA + bB → cC + dD
Reactions are categorized as zero-order, first-order, second-order, or mixed-order (higher-order) reactions.
1. Zero-Order Reactions
Zero-order reactions (order = 0) have a constant rate. This rate is independent of the concentration of the reactants. The rate law is:
rate = k, with k having the units of M/sec.
2. First-Order Reactions
A first order reaction (order = 1) has a rate proportional to the concentration of one of the reactants. A common example of a first-order reaction is the phenomenon of radioactive decay. The rate law is:
rate = k[A] (or B instead of A), with k having the units of sec-1
3. Second-Order Reactions
A second-order reaction (order = 2) has a rate proportional to the concentration of the square of a single reactant or the product of the concentration of two reactants:
rate = k[A]2 (or substitute B for A or k multiplied by the concentration of A times the concentration of B), with the units of the rate constant M-1sec-1
4. Mixed-Order or Higher-Order Reactions
Mixed-order reactions have a fractional order for their rate:
e.g., rate = k[A]1/3