Overview of Boiler

By: doyouknow | Views: 5941 | Date: 15-Dec-2011

Vessel that heats water to become hot water or steam• At atmospheric pressure water volume increases 1,600 times• Hot water or steam used to transfer heat to a processis called Boiler.

What is a Boiler?

• Vessel that heats water to become hot water or steam
• At atmospheric pressure water volume increases 1,600 times
• Hot water or steam used to transfer heat to a process

Type of Boilers

1. Fire Tube Boiler
2. Water Tube Boiler
3. Packaged Boiler
4. Fluidized Bed (FBC) Boiler
5. Stoker Fired Boiler
6. Pulverized Fuel Boiler
7. Waste Heat Boiler
8. Thermic Fluid Heater (not a boiler!)

1. Fire Tube Boiler

• Relatively small steam capacities (12,000 kg/hour)
• Low to medium steam pressures (18 kg/cm2)
• Operates with oil, gas or solid fuels

2. Water Tube Boiler

• Used for high steam demand and pressure requirements
• Capacity range of 4,500 – 120,000 kg/hour
• Combustion efficiency enhanced by induced draft provisions
• Lower tolerance for water quality and needs water treatment plant

3. Packaged Boiler

• Comes in complete package

Features

• High heat transfer
• Faster evaporation
• Good convective heat transfer
• Good combustion efficiency
• High thermal efficiency

4. Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) Boiler

• Particles (e.g. sand) are suspended in high velocity air stream: bubbling fluidized bed
• Combustion at 840° – 950° C
• Capacity range 0,5 T/hr to 100 T/hr
• Fuels: coal, washery rejects, rice husk, bagasse and agricultural wastes
• Benefits: compactness, fuel flexibility, higher combustion efficiency, reduced SOx & NOx

a. Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion (AFBC) Boiler
• Most common FBC boiler that uses preheated atmospheric air as fluidization and combustion air

b. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) Boiler
• Compressor supplies the forced draft and combustor is a pressure vessel
• Used for cogeneration or combined cycle power generation

c. Atmospheric Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) Boiler
• Solids lifted from bed, rise, return to bed
• Steam generation in convection section
• Benefits: more economical, better space utilization and efficient combustion

5. Stoke Fired Boilers

a) Spreader stokers
• Coal is first burnt in suspension then in coal bed
• Flexibility to meet load fluctuations
• Favored in many industrial applications

b) Chain-grate or traveling-grate stoker
• Coal is burnt on moving steel grate
• Coal gate controls coal feeding rate
• Uniform coal size for complete combustion

6. Pulverized Fuel Boiler

• Pulverized coal powder blown with combustion air into boiler through burner nozzles
• Combustion temperature at 1300 -1700 °C
• Benefits: varying coal quality coal, quick response to load changes and high pre-heat air temperatures

7. Waste Heat Boiler

• Used when waste heat available at medium/high temp
• Auxiliary fuel burners used if steam demand is more than the waste heat can generate
• Used in heat recovery from exhaust gases from gas turbines and diesel engines

8. Thermic Fluid Heater

• Wide application for indirect process heating
• Thermic fluid (petroleum-based) is heat transfer medium

• Benefits:

• Closed cycle = minimal losses
• Non-pressurized system operation at 250 °C
• Automatic controls = operational flexibility
• Good thermal efficiencies



 

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